By Douglas L. Cairns
This is often the 1st examine in English to check essentially the most an important phrases in Greek moral and social discourse, aidos, inside of quite a lot of Greek literature. as a rule rendered "shame," "modesty," or "respect," aidos is without doubt one of the so much elusive and hard Greek phrases to translate. Dr. Cairns discusses the character and alertness of aidos and different suitable phrases in a couple of authors; with specific emphasis on their manifestations in epic, tragedy, and philosophy. He indicates that the essence of the idea that is to be present in its courting with Greek values of honor, within which context it might realize and reply to the honour of either the self and others. It therefore consists of either self- and different- concerning habit, aggressive and cooperative values.
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Extra resources for Aidos: The Psychology and Ethics of Honour and Shame in Ancient Greek Literature
Introducing euergetism 17 prosperous in antiquity, or because you could not so easily spot from the surface that the place once contained some fairly large cities) have suffered comparative neglect. e. larger and more splendid cities, tend to be situated in relatively urbanised areas. So the fact that, nowadays, we still have more inscriptions from such sites and areas than from others probably more or less reflects ancient conditions, since epigraphy was mostly an urban phenomenon. Still, this last observation does not completely absolve us from taking into account the potentially distorting effects of modern research-preferences on our ancient data set.
Finally, we should briefly turn to the matter of the sheer variety of interpretations historians have advanced to explain euergetism. In this book, it may seem as if I present a rather monocausal explanation in explicitly relating euergetism to the legitimation of elite rule and the collective affirmation of civic ideals without paying much attention to alternative 17 Hence I can also see little analytical value in retaining the distinction proposed by Veyne (1976) 103 between a more political form of euergetism (ob honorem) connected to office holding, such as paying the costs associated with your office out of your own pocket, or ‘entrance fees’ (summae honorariae) for offices and council membership, and ‘disinterested’ spontaneous gifts by non-office holding members of the elite (m´ec´enat).
As ‘small gifts’ I defined all those gifts that involved a sum lower than 1,000 denarii, that is, almost the annual income of a councillor owning no more than the census minimum of HS 100,000 or 25,000 denarii, assuming a 5 per cent return on landed property per annum. I also excluded gifts of entire public buildings. A survey of the database with these criteria in mind showed that some 60 per cent of all 530 gifts qualified as small. Naturally, this percentage is to be taken with a pinch of salt, since, due to the absence of sums or other specific information, the size of a gift cannot always be determined clearly from the inscription alone, especially in the case of games and festivals.
Aidos: The Psychology and Ethics of Honour and Shame in Ancient Greek Literature by Douglas L. Cairns