By Gerhard P. Willeke, Eicke R. Weber
This quantity is the 3rd of a suite of 7 related to photovoltaics. sun cell-related applied sciences coated the following contain: ribbon silicon; heterojunction crystalline silicon; wafer an identical crystalline silicon; and different complicated silicon sun mobile buildings and processes.
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Additional info for Advances in Photovoltaics: Part 3,
Additional components are glass frits containing PbO, B2O3, and SiO2 (1–10%weight), which are responsible for locally dissolving the SiNx:H layer State-of-the-Art Industrial Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells 29 as well as for a good adhesion. Also present are organic binders (15–30%weight), influencing the rheology of the paste which has to be low enough to ensure that a continuous finger is formed and high enough to keep a high aspect ratio (Neuhaus and Mu¨nzer, 2007). During the firing step at temperatures around 800 C, the electrical contact between Ag and c-Si is established.
The improvement by etch-back is more pronounced for inline emitter formation (see Section 3) as compared to POCl3 diffusion, reaching a similar quality as the homogeneous POCl3 emitter after etch-back (Hahn, 2010). This is due to the typically higher Psurf of inline emitters due to higher diffusion temperatures and shorter diffusion times compared to POCl3 emitters. 22 Lowering of j0e with increasing etch-back (open symbols) of directly diffused POCl3 emitters (solid symbols). Similarly low values for j0e can be achieved by etching-back from different Rsheet starting values (emitter passivation by SiNx:H and firing).
Both processes insert extra steps after firing of the Al-BSF, which can therefore be optimized independently of the front contact. In this approach, a plated Ni/ Cu/Ag front contact stack is used. Two extra steps are added, and the approach allows for thinner, highly conductive grid lines as well. Roth & Rau are working on commercialization. 8 Effect of encapsulation on blue response Selective emitters show an increase in j–V parameters on solar cell level as demonstrated above, but the enhanced performance has to occur on module level after encapsulation under glass as well.
Advances in Photovoltaics: Part 3, by Gerhard P. Willeke, Eicke R. Weber