By Wolfgang Babel, Alexander Steinbüchel
Dwelling platforms synthesize seven various sessions of polymers. they supply constitution and shape for cells and organisms, functionality as catalysts and effort garage and hold the genetic details. these kinds of polymers own technically fascinating houses. a few of these biopolymers are already used commercially. This particular quantity of Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology contains 10 chapters. It provides an summary of the water insoluble biopolyesters, particularly of the microbially synthesized poly-hydroxyalkanoate (PHA) relations. It stories the state-of-the-art of metabolism, legislation and genetic historical past, the newest advances made in genetic optimization of micro organism, "construction" of transgenic vegetation and in vitro synthesis through purified enzymes. additionally, it describes proper applied sciences and evaluates views bearing on expanding the commercial viability and competitiveness of PHA and discusses purposes in medication, packaging, meals and different fields.
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Extra resources for Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology Biopolyesters
Woloshuk CP (1986) Cutinase of Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi: mechanism of induction and relatedness to other Fusarium species. PhD thesis, Washington State University, Pullman WA 159. Rogers LM, Flaishman MA, Kolattukudy PE (1994) Plant Cell 6:935 160. Sweigard JA, Chumley FG, Valent B (1992) Mol Gen Genet 232:183 161. van Kan JA, van’t Klooster JW, Wagemakers CA, Dees DC, van der Vlugt-Bergmans CJ (1997) Mol Plant Microbe Interact 10:30 162. Crowhurst RN, Binnie SJ, Bowen JK, Hawthorne BT, Plummer KM, Rees-George J, Rikkerink EH, Templeton MD (1997) Mol Plant Microbe Interact 10:355 Polyesters in Higher Plants 49 163.
In many cases the barrier layers were subjected to microscopic or cyto- Polyesters in Higher Plants 43 chemical examination. In the absence of chemical evidence, the barrier layers formed by fungal infection have been variously designated as lignin, suberin, lignin-suberin-like, etc. In one case firm identification of the barrier layer was made. Chemical analysis of the depolymerization products of the vascular coating induced by Verticilium alboatrum in tomatoes showed that the wall coating is suberin .
Transacting factors that bind the promoter elements found in the cutinase promoter have been cloned by screening expression libraries with concatenated promoter elements. A 50-kDa protein that specifically binds palindrome 1 (and not palindrome 2) of cutinase promoter was cloned and expressed in E. coli . This palindrome binding protein (PBP) autophosphorylates ; the biological function of this kinase activity remains to be elucidated. The cutinase transcription factor (CTF) that binds palindrome 2 that is essential for transcriptional activation of cutinase gene by hydroxy fatty acids exists in two forms, both of which have been cloned – CTF1a and CTF1b.
Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology Biopolyesters by Wolfgang Babel, Alexander Steinbüchel