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By Hightower J.W., et al. (eds.)

ISBN-10: 0444819479

ISBN-13: 9780444819475

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E. Addison, Structural Principles in Inorganic Chemistry, Longmans, 1963. R. J. P. Williams, 'The Biochemistry of Sodium, Potassium and Calcium', Chemical Society Quarterly Reviews, 3, 331, 1970. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. D. B. McCormick and H. Sigel, 'Discriminating behaviour of metal ions and ligands with regard to their biological significance', Accounts of Chemical Research, 3, 201, 1970. 7. C. A. Coulson, The Shape and Structure of Molecules, Clarendon Press, 1973. 34 2. 1 INTRODUCTION It is the purpose of this chapter to present an outline of the main structural facets of organic chemistry, particularly those which concern spatial relationships within molecules.

The reason for the limited penetrating power, in spite of their high energy, is their relatively high mass. As a particles pass through air they produce ionization of the air. For example, 5 MeV a radiation produces about 25 000 ion pairs per centimetre. · (ii) Beta radiation (/3) Beta radiation consists of high-speed electrons. Most f3 radiation consists of negatively charged electrons but the f3 radiation from neutron-deficient radionuclides is often positively charged electrons(positrons). The penetrating power of f3 radiation is higher than that of a radiation and has energies in the range 15 keV to I 5 MeV.

Two outstanding examples of this use are the tracing of the pathways for the fixation of carbon dioxide in photosynthesis and the biosynthesis of steroids. In both cases simple radioactive starting materials containing carbon-14 were used, which led to final reaction products containing carbon-14. From the positions of these radioactive carbon atoms found in the products and reaction intermediates, the complete pathways were traced. Radioactive tracers have also been used extensively in physiology and medicine.

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11th International Congress on Catalysis - 40th Anniversary. Baltimor, 1996 by Hightower J.W., et al. (eds.)

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